西班牙著名选手奥特·皮(Ot Pi)在障碍单车运动领域共获得过12次世界冠军，2008年在上海金茂大厦完成登顶2008级台阶的终极挑战。奥特·皮障碍单车教程由浅入深地讲解了障碍单车基本技术，为初学者提供了循序渐进的练习教程。(Monty 极浪编译)
Balance technic is essential in Biketrial. People who practice Biketrial is called dinamic equilibrists because we try to keep the balance, surpassing the obstacles with no dabs on the floor.
The essence of Biketrial is to keep the balance in extreme situation, so when you are talking about this sport, always appears this word. This technic should be worked very early because your body takes the sense of the balance since the beginning. You can see if a rider has begun in Biketrial later because his sense of balance is lower than a guy who has begun earlier.
What is the thing you must to do to get good balance?
You must to stay on your bike most peaceful you can. To improve the technic you must to play a lot with your body. If the bike goes to left, your body must go to the right , and viceversa. On the other hand, you must to hold your handlebar as straight as possible . With all this parameters governed, the essential is try to get gravity center in the center of the bike, in all moment. Just so, you mustn't forget that, to improve this technic, is also important the concentration power that you should have when you are doing balance. Exercises to practice balance:
Continuous lines on the road: You must to ride over those lines as long time as you can.
Side-walks: You must try to ride just over the border and hold the balance in a position a little beat higher than adjacent floor. In this way you'll get the technic in few time.
Tube: Ride along a large tube is the most difficult exercise you can do to practice balance technic. More slim tube = more difficult to get the balance but more experience.
Walking: You can practice balance technic just walking. You can walk over a small railing. This is very useful to get balance essence and learn about how place your body when you lost the balance. It's sure that when you are on the bike you must to keep the maximum balance. When you are on movement, you can get it holding front wheel straight. It is easy.
Is more difficult when you are stopped because you must turn your wheel, on both sides, to get more overture in gravity center and it will be more easy to be peaceful. To be balanced over a bike is more easy if you have the wheel turned because you have more base. With the wheel on straight position you haven't margin to correct. To learn balance technic, is better begin on movement and, after, peaceful placing your body to the left or right depending the unbalance of the bike. Moreover, you can play with both brakes balancing your body, sweetly, to the front or rear.
At last, you can practice using four legs chairs, trying to keep the balance only over two. Advanced pedal One question you must to think when you are keeping the balance is the pedal position, that will be useful like support piont and balance. In Biketrial, right side people keep balance better supporting on right pedal and left side people with left pedal in front.
Turn on rear wheel
This is one of the basic technics of Biketrial and is very useful to hold the balance when you lose it and, moreover, it is useful to face the obstacles perfectly, changing front wheel position with rear wheel always in the same place. Is very important, when you are practicing this technic, to use your legs and your arms like suspension systems. Your body must become in a spring which will work like a suspension, in a full suspension bike. Air in the wheels, and your body, will help you to move front wheel.
To make this pivotation, you must to contract arms and legs at the same time and make a sweet pull with the arms, while you turn your body sweetly to left or right. This movement will make a lateral displacement of front wheel. Most important is think about arms and legs place, that must to be flexioned.
With your arms and legs extended the lift movement should be imposible to do. All Biketrial exercises have a correspondence with some normal exercises walking, without your bike. The act of to pivot over rear wheel is comparable to lift a weight from the floor. If we make a comparison, we can see the need that arms and legs must be flexed. It's imposible to lift any weight from the floor with all extremities straight. Must be flexioned. To consolidate this technic, the only way is to practice a lot of times, tough weights exercises are good to take power and release in the movement.
Top begin, is better to practice in a complete flat floor. It will be very useful begin making little full circles with little pivotations : first to left side and after to right, if you are right. When you have had good full circles, the step is try to do make little jumps to left continued to little more to right, never placing any dab on the floor.
Turn on front wheel
To move rear wheel pivoting on front wheel is a more difficult technic than inverse. In the beginnings of your learning, is an unuseful movement because, in most cases, you can sustitute it for pivotation on rear wheel. Pivotation on front wheel helps you to place the bike in the best position to face the obstacle, saving a lot of movements than you should to do if you only could pivot on rear wheel.
There are places, caused by ground composition, in which you only can pivot on front wheel, because there aren't possibilities to go back or front wheel hasn't free space to turn. Freedom movements are higher if you can pivot alternatively on front or rear wheel.
Learning on a gradient
The best way to learn this movement is on a gradient where you mark a line on. You must to come near to it, in a not high speed to evite to fly over the handlebar, brake and move your body to the front. Braking must be done with both brakes ant the same time, but a little beat more with front.
Automatically your bike will lift rear wheel. With rear wheel hanged on air, right people will must to make a hip hit to right side to move rear wheel in that way. Left people will made the opposite.
Improving the technic on flat
When you are domineering the technic on a gradient, step is try to get it on a flat: you must to mark a line and when you are arriving, pedaling, you must to brake with front brake to lift rear wheel from the floor. When the wheel is in the air, you must to make a hip hit and that's all .
Improving on static
When you are got the technic on movement, most difficult way is arriving: make it stopped. To lift rear wheel from the floor you are lost the inertia that you had when you made the movement pedaling so, you must to use your body to get it. You must to displace your gravity center as forward as posible, like you would like to touch front wheel with your nose. Is important to learn this movement to your "bad side", because in any competition the only way to pass the section will be the movement to bad side. You must to learn the movement step by step. Right people make all the movements with right pedal in front and viceversa, independently the side that you would like to make the pivotation.
Pivotation technics on rear wheel or front wheel are basic in Biketrial. So must to make all them perfectly, without doubts. This way will evite too much efforts and difficulties when you will face the obstacles. A good exercise is to alternate pivotation with both wheels: one time with front wheel and one time with rear, changing the pivotation side at the same time. You can practice a lot in a very short free place.
Change this exercise to an step, wishing to pass them with no dabs, is the last step in the learning of this technic. In every step you can improve the technic of the front wheel pivoting on rear, and the balance and rear wheel movement pivoting on front wheel. Is important that the choosen step have the same width than the large of the bike. If the step is more slim, you can apply the technic placing the bike not in parallel. Front wheel always will be one or two steps higher than rear so, to keep the balance will be more difficult.
On the steps you can learn a lot about how to place front wheel to evite the slip of the front wheel. The technic help to improve the capacity to keep the balance in an strange situations like both wheels in different heights.
If you draw a clock on the floor, to go from twelve o'lock since three o'lock pivoting on rear wheel, you'll need four movements. With turns technic you'll save time and efforts because you'll made the change of the way with only more larger jump.
This technic looks like pivoting on rear wheel technic. You must to do it flexioning your body to the front, to pull, after, the handlebar while you turn the body to left or right size, but increasing that jump. In fact, both technics need a similar effort, though the turns must to be done more larger than before. With this technic, a good rider is able to make 180 degrees turns with rear wheel always on the floor.
This technic is comparable to jump to the rear, but moving yourself to any side. For the right people is more easy to jump to right side and for left people jump to left side.
With the brakes always blockaded, you must to use your body like a suspension, flexioning it and jumping to one of both sides. To make this jump you must to make the power with your arms and your legs, pulling the bike to move it up and displacing your body to any of both sides to complete the change of the place.
The jumps made through this technic are relatively short, about 40 centimeters maximum, so to hold the balance in the land is not an attached problem. If you lose the balance when you'll arrive your destiny place, you can correct the position making some little jumps with rear or front wheel. Is a good idea to practice lateral jumps to left or right side because, though is the same technic, the difficulty is different depending your good side.
To go back is very important to improve your mobility on the bike. All the people is accustomed to go to the front because is very easy pedaling to do it.
To go back isn't as easier as to go to the front because you can't use the pedals. To go back offers to you more bike control and is very useful to correct in the moment you try to pass any obstacle for second time or in other situations you must to know to go back correctly.
You must to begin from an initial position on the bike with front wheel turned to left or right (depending your good side). Since that position you must to fix your brakes, place your body to the front and, when it is over the handlebar, you must to displace, suddenly, all the weight to the rear and unfix the brakes. In this way you can use your own body impulse to go back.
To get this technic in the right way is better to begin to practice it in a ground with a little slope, because at the same moment you'll unfix the brakes, the bike will have the tendency to go back. In a flat ground, first time you try the technic, the bike wants to be quiet. In a slope ground the rider impulse added to the inertia, caused by the slope floor, will transport the bike to the rear .
In Biketrial you must to brake with both brakes, but always with a bigger percentage with rear brake than front brake. We could fix this percentage in 60% with rear brake and 40% with front because if you brake more with front than rear, you could overturn. In the moment of breaking, in normal conditions, you must to try to displace the weight most rear as you can on the bike and hold the handlebar as straight as possible. In this way you'll get more control and you'll reduce the risk of unbalance.
You must to anticipate, as soon as possible, and foresee where you'll begin the breaking, to make it progressive and don't block the brakes because it will difficult the control caused by the sliding.
Placing of the levers
An interesant counsel is to place the lever of rear brake - that is the most important - in your good hand on the handlebar. Right side for right people and left side for left people. Your good hand always has more strenght and reaction response. The most important is that your reaction must to be as inmediate as you can. Some trial moto riders are placing the levers like in the motorcycle. Front brake in right side and rear brake in left side.
Way of braking
Actually, the best braking is got with hidraulic brakes, that are the best brake that most riders have installed in their bikes in World Championship and main competitions. In most situations the braking is made only with index finger, holding the rest of fingers taking the handlebar to evite to lose the control in the moment of brake. In extreme situations - like extreme ramps - where you need a very hard braking you can brake with two fingers, index and heart.
In Biketrial, most brakings need that rear wheel will be completely blocked, with few chances of sliding. Moreover is an sport that riders always are braking. To optimize the braking capacity of the bike is a very good option to scratch the rims and cover them, a little beat, with asphaltic floor. You'll get a more hard and powerful braking.
Pedal hit to advance
This technic is used to advance when the ground is not plain and you can't surpass it rolling. The rider will choice the option of jump that place, eluding to touch the ground with the wheels to evite a fall. You'll get the jump to the front making a pedals hit, assisted with arms and legs.
Is very important, to get success, the good play of the brakes. Pedal hit should be simultaneously to the unblock of the brakes. At the beginning, the brakes must to be be blocked, making the pedal hit in the moment of unblock them. Pedal hit must to be abrupt to get the advance of the bike. More abrupt=more distance of the jump.
The power of your muscles that make the effort (cuadriceps) is proportional to the success of the movement. You haven't forget that pedal hit is always made with the same pedal. left pedal for left people and right for rights.
This technics consists to displace all the bikes with jumps, that you must to make with your arms power. In this way you can advance on a flat ground, on a ramp or on an steep ground.
This technic is very sure, but is required a lot of power to make it continuosly into a section or in different sections into a competition. You must to begin in a balance position. All the movements are made with the brakes totally blocked, so you won't have the "help" of the pedals.
You'll get the advance flexioning all your body and extending it suddenly while your arms push the handlebar to place the bike in the desired place.
The use of this technic is very usual because if you are playing a section where it's impossible to pedal, the only way is to use this technic. Moreover, is a very versatile technic because you can use it with the bike completely straight or wick and land in a different position with a simple hip hit on the air.
A useful counseil to improve the arms advance is to practice it on a stairs, and structure that will help to fix the exact places where you must to place both wheels in every jump.
日积月累才能有所成效，通过努力方能超越对手。记得小时候我和邻居Antonio Talavera 比赛谁跳的更多，如果他跳了9次我就回去跳10次，我们就这样互相促进学习。
Jump on rear wheel
This technic is very important, because current Biketrial is everytime more technic and there are a lot of sections where you only can use rear wheel. Sometimes, the places where you must to ride are very narrow and more short than the lenght of the bike so, you must to go up with the front wheel on the air and keep the balance to surpass the obstacle. Jump on rear wheel is the technic more improved in the last years because the obstacles are more narrow everytime and you must to know jump on rear wheel very well to try some obstacles.
For instance, if you must to climb over a tree root but it is unable to contain the bike you must to go up on rear wheel only. Another situation could be a very narrow and vertical stairs. It could be the same technic. For all of it, you must to learn this technic very well.
There are three different ways to make this technic
1. Go back with the arms
This is the first technic you must to learn to jump on rear wheel.It must to be practised on a gradient: you must to go up on it, brake raising front wheel- is very easy always on a ramp- and, with the brakes blockade, you go back jumping down again. To raise front wheel on a ramp you must to brake and pull up the handlebar with the arms. When the front wheel will be on air, it will have the tendency to go back so, to correct the that unbalance and evite a back fall down, you must to extend arms and legs making an impulse to rear. One time you are landed, you must to control the front wheel to evite that it falls down, placing the handlebar near your body. It will seems that the bike would like to overturn to rear, but another jump will arrange it.
The movement that you make on the bike is completely comparable the movement that makes the gymnast to lift up the weights of the floor, with an abrupt movement to up. More exactly, after to raise front wheel the body of the rider must to make a flexion, attracting the handlebar to him. When the unbalance is produced, the rider must to go far of the handlebar placing his body to the rear and after, throw strongly the handlebar to get a jump of the bicycle. The best way to improve this technic is try always to surpass yourself. The motivation to get a bigger number of jumps everyday will take you to an exponencial progression.
The best submission is in a collectible training because a different level between riders take you to make more effort to surpass the other. I remember with love when I was a boy and, with my neighbour Antonio Talavera made competitions to get more jumps than the other. If he said me that he was got 9 jumps, when I return home I tried to get 10 jumps to win him. I learned of him and he learned of me.
2. With the arms
After to consolidate the technic of jump with the arms going back you can begin to jump only with the arms. You must to raise the front wheel and with the power of your arms jump always in the same place. You can make this technic with your brakes blockaded, but in a flat ground and jumping on the same place.
First of all you must to raise your front wheel; with your body placed before you must to change all the weight to back throwing the handlebar. To make the jumps, first of all you must to double the legs and after extend them at the same time that the arms that, simultaneously, pull up the handlebar. To evite that front wheel touch the ground in the land, the body must to correct the position trying that front wheel be placed very high, because is more easy to controlate.
3. With pedal hit
It is a depurated technic and one of the most important that exists in Biketrial. It consists in to raise front wheel and advance through little jumps, making pedal hits and playing with the brakes according to it. You must to raise the front wheel but with the thinking to advance so, you must to make a pedal hit. Is very important, to get success, the brake play. Pedal hit must be done simultaneously with the unlock of the brakes. You begin with the brakes locked, doing pedal hit at the moment to unlock.
This pedal hit must be very abrupt, because when you unlock the brakes front wheel begins to fall down and are just that pedal hit and chain traction the causants of the rebalance and to launch the bike to the front. You must to remember two important questions: One time you have done the jump and rear wheel has contacted the ground again, you must to evite that front wheel touch the floor, locking again the brakes and raising that wheel highest possible.
On the other hand, you must to remember that all pedal hits must be done with the same pedal: left pedal for left people and right for right people. More abrupt pedal hit will place the bike more far so, the powered of the muscles that make this action (cuadriceps) will contribute a more success of the movement.
Jump on rear wheel turning
This technic is useful to attack an obstacle in that places where it is smaller than the full bike. You must to start in the position where the rider is jumping on rear wheel with pedals hits. The turn must to be made slowly(step by step), like you are pivoting on rear wheel; in every jump you must to turn few degrees.
Right people has more facilities to turn to left side and left people will be more confortable turning to right side. When you are on the air, you must to turn your girdle to the desired side and inmediately after, accompany the handlebar to the same side, returning to place the bike right respect your body. Brakes play is the same like in the movement of jump on rear wheel.
You must to unlock the brakes only in the moment to make the pedal hit for realize the jump and turn. When you land again, the brakes must be locked.
Wet surfaces advance
What I must to do when I'm riding over very slippery sections?.
How I must to confront the advance into a river where the stones slice and it seems that the stones would like to throw us down?
The first thing you must to do is try to get the maximum adherence possible in your tyres, descending the pressure of the tubes to the half, though it could be too much. The riding will change a lot, because the ausence of air into the tubes will reduce the rebounds a lot. It causes that the rider must to do more effort to surpass the sections.
You must to take care of your brakes a lot, because on wet conditions the brakes lose the power of braking when the rims are wet(with the current brake disks systems it has been arranged a lot). Is totally necessary that rims rims will be scratched with an abrupt draw to brake in dry conditions, when it will be necessary.
Maximum precision in driving
The technic of roding on wet surfaces must to be very precise, because the sections give you very few margin of error when you are riding in the correct way. In dry conditions if you lose the best way you can find another good place to keep the balance, but it is very difficult in wet conditions. You must to have very clear, before ride the section, which will be thew places where you'll ride and reduce thew movements on the bike to the minimum in every section, making only the necessary to keep the balance.