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    障碍单车运动发展简史(图)
    文:xbreaker   来源:xbreaker   时间:2009-3-29 18:31:51   点击:2714

      我总认为障碍单车运动是在单车发明那天就出现的,有单车的人会想试着用单车上下楼梯,其实这就是障碍单车运动。很多年前在英国出现了摩托障碍运动,西班牙品牌Montesa和Bultaco成为领导者。那个年代的Karlson,Vesterinen以及一些其他车手成为青年的偶像,但大部分年轻人买不起障碍摩托车。

      障碍单车运动作为一项运动诞生,或多或少,可追溯至上世纪70年代中期的西班牙。在巴塞罗那的Sabadell和Sant Feliu de Codinas两个小镇,还有Aragón的一些小村庄,一些人用改装的单车模仿他们的障碍摩托车手偶像。他们组织聚会,但不是比赛,向朋友展示自己新的骑行技术。比赛的灵感随之产生,他们开始组织以摩托障碍赛为基础的比赛。当时被称为“Bici-Trial”的比赛在Sabadell举办,30年后这里成为最大的城区永久性障碍场地“Catalunya Park”。

      在Sant Feliu de Codinas,先驱人物Josep Figueras成为这项新运动的推广者。技术的快速发展导致在很短时间内出现特别设计的单车,从而取代原始的改装车进行“Bici-Trial”练习,Figueras单车成为最早的经特别设计的障碍单车。事实上,Montesa单车的诞生吸取了Figueras的单车理念,还有Eliseu Sellés等Sabadell车手的经验,在此基础上融入自己的想法。Oscar Puig负责在每个周末组织比赛,并参考摩托障碍赛的规则。

      与此同时,巴塞罗那的Pedro Pí已经是一名著名摩托车手,他曾获得包括首届冠军的7届西班牙摩托锦标赛冠军,也是唯一在越野、障碍、速度赛三个项目取得冠军的车手。在1974年Bici-Trial刚出现之际,他4岁的儿子Ot Pi象所有同龄孩子一样想要一辆单车。Pedro想给Ot买一辆可在山地骑行的单车,但在巴塞罗那的大商场里得到的回答是“没有这种车”。Pedro对此并不满意,遂到其连襟开的Motos Isern摩托商店,得到同样的回答。确信没有这类单车后,Pedro利用在Montesa任产品开发经理之便,决定为Ot造一辆爬山单车。单车设计采用了适合直爬的类似障碍摩托车的结构,Ot可以在院子里双脚不着地骑行近一圈。Pedro注意到儿子的潜力,拍摄了一张他跳跃18厘米台阶的照片。

      Ot的单车引起Montesa老板Permanyer的极大兴趣,他告诉Pedro不能以工厂的方式搞这种单车,但可以支付费用,生产和开发必须在工作时间以外。一年后所有零件备齐,正当运作时,Jaume Argemí告诉Pedro在Sant Feliu de Codines有一个人用类似的单车玩障碍,他们对此人很感兴趣并邀请他作为官方车手。大厂的优势超过了Figueras,Andreu Codina成为“Montesitas”首位官方车手,Pedro着手写与摩托障碍类似但适合单车的规则。这项运动具有极大潜力,很多人对此刚出现的新运动抱有兴趣。在西班牙中心的马德里,一些人开始发展“Bici-Trial”运动,并组织聚会和比赛。不久举办的Catalunya-Madrid赛事起到了重要作用,选手间得以交流技术和促进友谊,并在周边地区开展赛事。Oscar Puig的努力得到赞赏,他组织了很多赛事,但必须得到官方机构的认证才能发展下去。

      感谢Pedro在Montesa的工作,他在媒体有很多熟人朋友,他最后联络了一个人商讨这项新运动属于自行车还是摩托车项目。不久,Pedro接到摩托运动联盟(motorcycle federation)Soriano的电话,表示时任联盟主席Lluís Puig发给他一些规则,并决定在马德里举行会议。会议最终决定这项运动转归自行车联盟(cyclist federation),但有一个条件:Pedro必须作为这个新的单车项目的经理。Pedro答应了这个不错的想法,这对他在Montesa的单车生产也有好处。所有人认为这项运动的情形不错,在1979年,以“TRIALSIN”取代“Bici-Trial”作为这项运动的名称。(“sin”在西班牙语是没有的意思,Trialsín意指无马达、无噪音,无烟的障碍运动)

      感谢Montesa公司,Montesitas障碍单车通过经销商迅速走向世界。许多人发现了Trialsín运动,1982年举办了首届欧洲锦标赛(Trialsín European Championship)。许多西班牙和其他国家的自行车厂开始生产这种特别的Trialsín单车,如Montesa, Figueras, Torpado, Sans, Rubíes, Bianchi, Technic One, Looping, Fantic等,Pedro处于领先。几年后,大约在1988年,自行车联盟对Trialsín项目兴趣索然,Pedro选择离开。一个由家长组成的委员会接替Pedro的工作,Rafa de la Torre作为选手的父亲,成为唯一对此项运动投入热情的人。80年代,随着4届欧洲锦标赛和1986年的首届世界锦标赛(World Trialsín Championship)的举办,Trialsín在世界范围发展起来。1983年的12月,Monty诞生了,Pedro Pí已经离开自行车联盟但仍为这项运动工作。Catalunya的Berga镇举办了第一届世界赛事,一个新时代开始了,日本、巴西、澳大利亚等国家的选手与欧洲选手同台竞技,选手通过4届欧锦赛积累了很多经验。

      西班牙自行车联盟始终认为Trialsín是一个娱乐项目,Trialsín也得不到任何预算或被当作联盟的一个项目。年复一年,Trialsín委员会的管理人员看到他们的运动停滞不前,每年工作遇到越来越多的麻烦,推广也不够。Trialsín生存下来要感谢各国代表,而不是处于走向消亡地位的联盟。

      90年代,在Andorra世界锦标赛站,不同国家的代表促使Pedro Pí组织全体代表会议讨论组建联盟事宜。13名代表中的12名赞成创立独立于UCI(国际自行车运动联盟)的新联盟,捷克的Josef Dressler自荐筹备事宜。他们编写联盟报告,1992年国际障碍单车运动联盟成立 (BikeTrial International Union,简称BIU),Dressler成为首任主席。1993年,日本的平野博担任主席职务,“BikeTrial”取代“Trialsín”成为更国际化且易懂的名称,各国也着手创建国家联盟。

      从1992年开始,BikeTrial 成熟起来,所有努力推动了Biketrial运动的发展,这项独立的运动不再受其他项目的影响。没有国家不知道BikeTrial,在日本Gifu省BikeTrial成为教学选修课程。中国正展望未来,一个有10多亿人口的国家有巨大的发展潜力。在德国也有类似的情形,那里可能比Sant Feliu de Codines和Sabadell还要早出现这项运动。不过,西班牙最早制定特别规则并重视这项运动,其他国家都采用这种规则。现今“BikeTrial”一词已经成为一个商标,标注了这项运动在70年代中期的西班牙诞生,它是Bici-Trial和Trialsín的延续,更适合推广和作为官方名称。感谢Pedro Pí,他不是发明者,但使这项运动正式化并纳入了官方组织。

      日复一日,西班牙的Biketrial信心实足,但也很困难。尽管不被当作联盟承认,但要感谢一些选手的认可和褒奖使得每个赛季都能举办国际和国内的锦标赛。每年西班牙选手的水平排在世界前列,并影响着其他的选手。

    极浪译自BikeTrial-Spain

    I always have thought BikeTrial was born the same day bicycle did it. Any guy that has got a bike has tried to go upstairs or downstairs on his/her bike, and it is BikeTrial. Moto Trial was born a lot of years ago in England and Montesa and Bultaco were worldwide leaders, as spanish brands. Karlson, Vesterinen and other important riders of that age, were the idols of the youngest but, for most of them, the custom economy and the age were the wall between them and a trial motorcycle. 

    As sport, Biketrial born is, more or less, documented and in spain could be dated around middle seventies. In Sabadell, as well as in Sant Feliu de Codinas, two towns of the Barcelona province, moreover some little villages in Aragin, we have got the first info of guys with modified bicycles trying to emulate their moto trial idols. They organized meetings, not competitions, to show off their friends their new riding improvements. The competition spirit soon arrived and they started to organize some competitions based on motorcycle competitions. It so happened that the first infos of "Bici-Trial" competitions, the name of the sport in that moment, are located in the same place that 30 years after is located the biggest urban permanent trial riding area: Catalunya Park in Sabadell. 

    In Sant Feliu de Codinas, Josep Figueras, was the pioneer of that new sport and its main promotor. Technology arrived quickly and in few time the original modified bikes were substituted by bicycles specially designed to practice Bici-Trial. The Figueras bikes were the first ones in appear as specific trial bikes. In fact, taking ideas of Figueras bikes and the experience of Sabadell riders, as Eliseu Sellés, was born a kind of bikes that Montesa improved thanks to its big infrastructure, mixing their own ideas with the other ones. Mr. Oscar Puig toke the responsability to organize the competitions and every weekend, the Bici-Trial guys met to compite, taking as reference the trial moto rules. 

    Coinciding with it, in Barcelona, Pedro Pi­ was a famous moto rider. He had been 7 times MX spanish championship champion and the first Trial spanish champion, moreover to be the only rider in the history to win the three motorcycle disciplines: motocross, trial and speed. In 1974, when Bici-Trial just had born, his son Ot was 4 years and, as all children of the same age, desired to get a bicycle. Pedro bought one for him but, according to his trial soul, he decided to buy a bike able to run along the mountain. Pedro went to a famous megastore in Barcelona looking for that bike but the answer was: "that kind of bike doesn't exist". In disagree with the answer, he went to visit his brother-in-law, owner of a famous motorcycle shop called Motos Isern. He got the same answer. Convinced of the inexistence of that kind of bike, and taking advantage of his job in Montesa as product development manager, decided to build his own bicycle for Ot, to ride the mountain. That bike was designed according to to a geometry that permitted to ride upright (as moto trial). With that bike, Ot got a very closed turn in the home garden without any foot on the floor. It never could be possible with the first bike. Quickly, Pedro Pi­ realized about the potential of that a toke pictures of Ot climbing a 18cm height step. 

    Once Ot's bike was ready, they introduced it to Mr. Permanyer, owner of Montesa brand, and he was very interested in the project, but he told Pedro that Montesa couldn't involucrate as a factory. Montesa could pay all the process, but the manufacture and developement of the bikes must be done out of working timetable. One year after, all the parts were built. While the process was running, Mr. Jaume Argemi­ talked Pedro that a guy in Sant Feliu de Codines had a bike similar Pere was manufacturing and he played trial with it. They were very interested in him and was hired as official rider. The power of a big factory was hugher than little ones as Figueras. Andreu Codina was the first "Montesitas" official rider. Pedro Pi­ started to write a rules similar to trial motom rules but adapted to bicycles. The sport had great potential and a lot of guys were interested in the new sport just born. In the center of Spain, Madrid, some guys started to develope the Bici-Trial, organizing meetings and some competitions. Soon, a competition Catalunya-Madrid arrived and it was very important to interchange technic ridings, friendship and organize more important competitions around. All he work made by Oscar Puig was very important and admired. He was organized a lot of comps but the sport must to be officialized in the official institution to grow up. 

    Thanks to his job in Montesa and his job as official rider, too, Pedro Pi­ had a lot of contacts and friendships, in the mass media as in the Consejo Superior de Deportes of Spain. He contacted the last ones to consider if the new sport belonged to Cyclist or motorcycle discipline. Few time after, Pere got a call from Mr. Soriano, from motorcycle federation staff, saying that Mr. Llui­s Puig, cyclist federation president those times, had transfered the rules matter to him, so they decided to make a meeting in Madrid. Finaly, the sport was transfered to cyclist federation with one condition: Pedro must be the manager of that new cyclist modality. Pedro answered that it wasn’t bad idea because he had bussiness interests as bycicles manufacturer in Montesa. All of them, thought that the situation could be very good for the sport and the name of Bici-Trial dissapeared and substituted by "TRIALSIN" (in spanish "sin" means "without", so Trialsi­n meant Trial without motor, without noise, without smoke, ...) It was 1979. 

    Thanks to the presence of Montesa around the world, the Montesitas quickly arrived to all Montesa dealers in the world. The Trialsi­n was discovered for many guys and, in 1982, was organized the first Trialsi­n European Championship. A lot of bicycles brands started to build specific Trialsi­n bikes, spanish and foreign, as Montesa, Figueras, Torpado, Sans, Rubi­es, Bianchi, Technic One, Looping, Fantic, .... It was created the "Comisii³n Nacional de Trialsi­n y BMX" with Pedro Pi­ in front of it. Some years after, around 1988, and got tired with the poor interest of the cyclist federation in Trialsi­n modality, Pere left the post. A parents committiee tok the post trying to follow the work made by Pedro Pi­. Rafa de la Torre was one of these parents and the only one who put most interest in Trialsi­n. He was father with to riders compiting. Along the eighties, Trialsi­n was growing up around the world and after 4 European Championships was held the first edition of the World Trialsi­n Championship (1986). While all these matters, Montesa dissappeared and was born Monty, in december of 1983. Pedro Pi­ was still working for the sport but out of the federation. Berga village in Catalunya hosted the first round of the first Trialsi­n worlds. A new period was born where the japanese, brazilian, australian and other countries riders had the chance to compite with the europeans, riders with a lot of experience thanks to the four European championships. 

    Spanish cyclist federation always considered Trialsi­n as modality imposed and only for fun. Trialsi­n never had any kind of budget and never was considered as a modality of cyclist federation. The managers of the "Trialsi­n committee" saw, year by year, that their sport was to come to a standstill. Every year they got more and more problems to follow with their work and Trialsi­n wasn´t enough promoted. Trialsi­n was alive thanks to the delegates and not thanks to federation work. The death was coming. 

    Starting the nineties and coinciding with the Andorra worlds round, the different countries delegates put pressure on Pedro Pi­ to organize a meeting with all the delegates to chat about federation matter. Twelve delegates of 13, aproved the creation of their own federation, independent of UCI. Mr. Josef Dressler, from Czech Republic, offered himself to make the necessary steps to create the federation. They wrote the articles of association and, in 1992, BIU (BikeTrial International Union) was created, with Mr. Dressler as the first president the first year. In 1993, japanese Mr. Hiroshi Hirano toke the post of the "BikeTrial". The name Trialsi­n dissapeared because BikeTrial is more international name and better understood around the world. Every country created its own national Union. 

    From 1992, BikeTrial has growed up a lot. All the efforts of the responsibles have been directly exclusively drived to boost the Biketrial, without any movement to other modalities. There aren't any country in the world where BikeTrial isn't known, in Gifu province (Japan) is one of the scholastic extra subjects, China has just opened the eyes to the BikeTrial. A country with more than one thousdand millions of people has a fantastic riders potential. We have news from similar circunstances of the sport in Germany, maybe before than Sant Feliu de Codines and Sabadell history, but the first country to make a specific rules and give the sport its importance was Spain. All the rest of the countries followed spanish rules. Nowadays, BikeTrial word has become a "brand" that identify the sport born in the middle seventies in Spain. It is the continuation of the Bici-Trial and Trialsi­n, name used to promote and make Trialsi­n official, thanks to Pere Pi­. He wasn't the inventor of the sport but the man who officilized the sport and put it into an official federation. 

    The day by day of the Biketrial in Spain is positive but very hard. With any kind of official help because Biketrial is not recognized as federation, but with some riders recognized with some awards thanks to their sportive careers, every season all the championships are organized, nationals as internationals. The level of spanish riders is on the top of the world every year and they are the mirrors where the rest of the riders are reflected in. 

    By Enric Gibert

     

    责任编辑: Xbreaker

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