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      文章首页>> 极浪讲堂 >> 单车 >> 
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    如何应对障碍单车碰撞(图)
    文:xbreaker   来源:xbreaker   时间:2013-5-30 21:19:00   点击:1206

      在障碍单车骑行过程中失去平衡或陷入困境时,有效逃脱远比碰撞安全。

    安全碰撞...看似矛盾?

      当尝试新的障碍单车路线或新的技术动作时,很容易达到自身极限。此时攀爬或跳跃一个新障碍的成功几率远低于100%。将骑行技术提升一步至超越现有的自信范围,落地时难免会不够完美。这正是要习惯用双脚落地逃离的原因,以避免惨烈地碰撞摔倒。

    认真观察

      不论是在难度路线上骑行,还是落在过渡的障碍物上,最常见的情形是逐渐失去平衡。如果离地面不是很高,或周边有足够的支撑物,只需将离地面较近的脚伸出脚触地即可,问题也就解决了。如果在相当高的障碍物上失去平衡,附近又没有脚够得着的支撑物,最安全的选项是双手握把跳离单车,双脚越过车架跳向要摔倒的一侧。通常可以双脚落地,双手握住车把保住单车。同样,握住车把有助于双脚落地时保持平衡(与触地的后轮形成稳定三角型结构)。当尝试一条新的路线时,设想一个完美的通过方法,同时留意可能出现摔倒情形的地点和摆脱碰撞的方法。这种小小的心理准备有助于评估将要冒的风险。然后回到设想的完美状态,放松并积极面对障碍。

    利用单车的惯性阻止摔倒

      如果是从高处摔倒(比如高于身高),最好推开单车并完全脱离单车,双脚自由落地,然后通过翻滚或屈膝用双手阻止摔倒。当跳离单车时,利用单车支撑身体的跳离。在单车尚接触障碍物的状态,可利用单车提供的支撑脱离险境(将车架从双腿间移开是最基本的)。

    跳离车把

      如果是向前失去平衡,并且前方没有双脚落地之处以避免摔倒,可以跃过车把并尝试用双脚落地。在此情形,向下推车把并跃过车把完全跳离单车,保持头上脚下的姿态避免前倾,抓住障碍物或任何边缘以减少最后的撞击。如出现身体前倾的状况(如链条突然断裂),面临前冲的严重撞击而来不及完全跳离,双手放开车把向前伸展双臂以缓冲撞击。手部的伤害可以阻止面部的严重损伤(撞出鼻血、摔掉大牙,割破下巴),即便戴了头盔,手腕受伤总好过以头击石。

    向后跳离

      在某些情况下,由于障碍物过于狭小而无法保持落下位置。如果向后摔倒,并没有把握完成不触地向后跳跃时,就双脚脱离脚踏落地以避免后背着地。再者,如果是发生在比较高的位置,切不可双手握把,尤其单车被卡在障碍物上时,应与单车分离。还有种选择,如实在不想让单车摔到地上,最安全的控制单车的方法是在跳离时抓住车架顶管(既最大限度减少损害,双脚也能安全落地)。

      在下高或踩跳时,或已经踩踏,突然感觉不对,最后的选择是用未踩踏的脚落在将离开的障碍物上并放弃单车。幸运的话,能站在障碍物边缘并在踩踏后仍能抓住单车。如若不幸(取决与发现的早晚和反映的快慢),可以终止跳远或下高动作,不过是人车分离,人在空中抓住前方单车(类似垂直的超人动作)。这看上去有点吓人,然后扔掉单车并用双脚落地,注意车架不要在落地方位。

      总的来说,当有明显的安全益处时可选择跳离单车。障碍单车运动很少涉及速度,双脚恰当落地常比在单车上失去平衡好得多。在其他单车项目,如自由式或越野单车有高速和动能的大跳跃,一旦最后在空中失去平衡,跳离单车并非最佳选择。可行的是使用高行程减震的自由式单车,以一定速度骑着单车降落然后撞击摔倒,或几秒后再摔车逃离(后续也没指望了)。对于高速的跳跃,唯一可以跳离单车并用脚紧急落地的是非常接近地面的情形(在坡道边缘或坡底时),此时将单车控制在双腿之间并无用处。

    佩带头盔

      在将摔倒时未能有效逃逸是非常糟糕的,但有些撞击不可预见,纯粹靠运气才能避免严重伤害。运气实际上与自我能力评估和面对挑战的自信是相关的。危险总伴随着行动发生,应学会了解自己的极限并循序渐进。最常见的导致严重撞击的机械故障是链条断裂和刹车失灵(刹车皮飞掉,油管暴裂等)。其次是踩踏时突发的车把故障,或中轴底座碰撞障碍物时断裂。减少伤害,至少需佩带头盔和高品质的手套,护胫/膝也是必须的,喜好偶尔被脚踏尖齿击伤的除外。

     
    2011 WBC Crash and Highlights(Full Video)

    If you are loosing balance or you are in trouble, bail out safely rather than crash.

    Crashing safely... an oxymoron?

    When you try new lines or new techniques in biketrial, you soon reach your limits. That's when your chances of successfully climbing or leaping over a new obstacle go quite below 100%. By pushing your riding skills one step above your current zone of confidence, you'll inevitably land less than perfect moves. That's why you should get used to bail out and land on your feet rather than crash miserably.
     
    See it coming!

        

          the perfect bail out (Matt)             bailing out rock'n roll style (Olly)

    The most common scenario is to lose balance progressively, either while riding along a difficult line, or just after landing a transition. If the ground is not far off, or there is enough support around, then you just need to extend your foot nearer the ground to dab. End of the story. If you are off-balance while on a fairly high obstacle, and there is nothing near enough to reach with your foot, then the safest option is to completely jump off the bike while holding onto the handlebar. Clear both feet off the frame, on the side you are falling off. Very often, you can land on your feet and save the bike from a sound trashing by keeping the bars in hand. Also, holding the bike can help you keep your balance when landing on your feet (forming a tripod with the rear wheel as it touches ground). When trying out a new line, try to visualize it as a perfect move, but also try to identify the crash scenarios and the possible bail out options. That's a tiny mental preparation that will help you assess the risks you are willing to take. Then focus again on the perfect move to comfort you in a positive approach of the obstacle.

    Use the bike's inertia to correct your fall

    Trying to avoid the plunge and rolling away

    Now, if the fall is from high (say more than your height), let the bike go completely or even better, push it away from you to land freely on your feet (then you can roll away or crouch and stop your fall with your hands). While you are ejecting yourself,  use the bike to support your ejection. As long as the bike is touching the obstacle, it offers some kind of support you can use to eject yourself away from danger (taking out the frame away from between your legs, basically).

    Bailing out over the bars

    Bailing out over the bars

    If you are off-balance forward, and again in the scenario where there is nowhere obvious in front of you to put your feet and stop your fall, then jump over the bars and try to land on your feet. In this case, eject yourself by pushing down on the bars and let the bike go completely once you have ejected clean. Rather than toppling forward, try to keep you head up and your feet down, grabbing the obstacle or any edge at hand to dampen the final impact. If you are still plunging forward (after a sudden chain snappage for example), heading for a nasty crash and it's too late for a complete bail out, let the handlebar go and extend your arms in front of you to take the impact. Reception on your hands will prevent some nasty facial reception (nose bleed, broken teeth, jaw snapper, chin cuts). Believe me, you'd rather have a sore wrist than head-butt a rock (even with a helmet).

    Bailing out backward

        

        Grabbing the frame                         Bailing out backwards

    In some cases, you may land on an obstacle just too short to maintain your landing position. If you are falling backward and not too sure about backing off with a clean backhop, just take your feet off the pedals to land on your feet rather than on your back. Again, if its from fairly high, you may not be able to keep the bars in hand, especially if the bike is stuck on the obstacle. Then let go. Alternatively, if you really don't want to trash your bike to the ground, the safest way to keep control of the bike while bailing out can be to grab the tope tube of the frame (you minimise damage, but you can still land on your feet).

        

      Going over the bars, let the bike out      Grab the obstacle on your way

    If you were about to drop off or pedal kick, or you already kicked in the pedal, but at the last second you have a bad feeling about it, your last chance is to let the bike go while sticking your bad foot (the non-kicking one) on the obstacle you were about to leave. If you are lucky, you'll be able to stay on the edge and even hold your bike after the kick. If you are not so lucky (its all about how early you saw it coming and how fast you reacted), then you may end up doing the gap jump or drop off, but off your bike, standing in the air and holding your bike in front of you (a kind of vertical superman). If it still looks scary, then push the bike away from you to land on your feet, without the frame in the way.

    Basically, you want to bail off when it gives you a clear safety advantage. In biketrials, because there is rarely any speed involved, you are often better off landing properly on your feet than off-balance on the bike. In other biking styles, like freeride or bmx riding where big jumps involve quite a lot of speed and momentum, and if you end up off-balance in the air, bailing off is not necessarily the best option. You'll be better off making use of the huge freeride suspensions or landing on the bike at speed and then crash or bail off a few seconds later (the future is bleak anyway). For fast jumps, the only times when you should clearly eject off your bike to crash-land on foot is when you realise you are going to land too short anyway (nose-pick into a jump lip or into a gap). Having the bike between your legs is just not helping.

    Wear a helmet

    It can be bad enough when you see it coming, if you don't bail out properly, but some crashes are so unforseeable that only sheer luck will save you from nasty damage. Actually, about luck, you choose how much of it you put on your side by evaluating your competence and self-confidence over the challenge at hand. The risks only exist if you are willing to take them, so learn to know your limits to work on them progressively. The most common mechanical failures that lead to serious crashes are a chain that snaps and brakes that give off (pads flying off, hydraulic hose bursting etc..) Less common is the sudden bar failure when pulling out a pedal kick, or the bottom bracket splitting into two bits upon landing. Limit damage. Wear at least a helmet and some good gloves. Shin/knee pads are another must, unless you like the occasional pain of some grippy pedals digging into your flesh. (Source)

     

    责任编辑: Xbreaker

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